Чистата животна средина и заштитата на природните ресурси се значаен предуслов за развој на Пелагонискиот плански регион. Чистата животна средина влијае кон подобрување на квалитетот на животот и здравјето на луѓето, така што општините од овој регион своите активности треба да ги насочуваат кон заштита и унапредување на животната средина.
Разумното користењеThe environment represents the sum of all external factors (biotic and abiotic) to which one organism has been exposed. Biotic (live) factors are the influences of the members of same or other type to the development and existence of the individual, whereas the abiotic are inanimate factors – the influence of the soil, water and air to the organisms. For each factor of the environment, one organism has adequate level of toleration capable to survive. This level constitutes the eco valence of the organism. Different individuals or different types have different level of toleration towards the factors of the environment. This variation is adaptation of the organism to the environment. The ability of one organism to change the toleration towards the factors represents its plasticity, where reaching the levels limit creates a stress. Those changes are known as acclimation.
Main abiotic factor are the light, temperature, water, atmosphere gas, ionizatic radiation which influence the form and the function of the individual.
Ultraviolet photon can damage the DNA molecule of living organism on different ways. Most common, there is a connection between these terms of both chains, instead of the complementary base of other chains. This created a convex in the molecule and does not function properly. The spectrum of electromagnetic radiation which reaches Earth surface is defined by absorb characteristics of the atmosphere. Biologically most important spectrum limit is 300 to 800 nm, which includes the visible, ultraviolet and infra red radiation. The visible light gives energy for life to most live forms. The light which absorbs by the pigment molecules (chlorophylls, carotenoids, fikobilins) is transformed in chemical energy by photosynthesis. Light accessibility is important for spreading the green plants. Photosynthesis organisms can endure wide range of light intensity. The total sun light in the tropical regions reaches 2000 nmol photons m-2 s-1. Photosynthesis organisms survived at places where the light is as low as 0.005% compared to the previous value. Besides the source of energy, the light is useful for receiving information from the environment. The human eye is capable to respond to light wavelength between 400 to 700 nm (human eye limit). In the frame of this limit, the sensibility is biggest at the green part of the solar spectrum. This is a part of the spectrum which is reflected back to the atmosphere. Temporary variations of light are also important nerve irritation. All live forms, from bacteria to human kind, are capable to detect and respond to the daily light fluctuations. This respond can be directly controlled from the presence or absence of light (diurnal rhythm) or, can be continued till the light variation disappears (circadial or 24hour rhythm). In the second case, the regulation is through the inner molecule clock which re sets the light every day. The process controlled by the circadial clocks vary by the molecule changes (genetic expression) to changes in the attitude (sleeping at the animals, or the movements of the leaves in the plants). Ultraviolet radiation has an ability to disjoin the chemical connections therefore defoliating proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. This defoliation of the DNA can lead to genetic mutations. The ozonic wrapping in the stratosphere is responsible for absorbing the great part of the ultraviolet light which reaches the outer atmosphere. Therefore, defoliation of the ozone by the different pollution (Freon), reaches the Earth.
Snails from the kind Helicella estivates in the plants of Sicily. Water is widely spread among the living systems, because it is universal solvent is necessary for the biological activity. Many organisms developed the ability to survive longer periods without water, but only by conservation of the non active stadium (through cryptobiosys and getting in dream). Accessibility of water became one of the biggest ecological factors for the soils survival. The primitive continental organisms show small or no ability to keep the water in their cages, and because of that they are called poicolohydrical. For example we’ll take the amphibian and the primitive plants, such as moss. These organisms are limited in areas where there is enough water. Lichen can survive the total water loss and return to the active condition for a very short time. These organisms have to be capable to minimize the damage evoked to the caged structures in absence of water. Dehydration causes irrevocable damages to the membrane and proteins. This damage can be repressed by accumulation of protective molecules called compatible solvents. Homeohydric organisms have waterproof layer which restricts the loss of the water in the cage. This waterproof is never absolute, because the gas exchange is always done by the water phase. The keeping of the water allows the organisms to live in areas where water supply is not constant. At the extremely dry areas, the changes in the attitude can contribute to minimal water loss. Therefore, the animals can be nocturnal and step out on low temperatures. Cactus, for example, makes a form of photosynthesis, signified as SAM photosynthesis (Crassulacean acid metabolism) which allows them to separate the process of gas exchange to light absorption.
Temperature is very important for the organism existence in two ways:
• As the temperature decreases, the movement of the molecules gets slow and the level of the chemical reactions decreases;
• The temperature appoints the physical condition of the water.
Comparison of physical temperature: poiclotermic snake eats homoeothermic mice. The deceleration of metabolism activity on low temperatures can be shown through the example of the reptiles. These animals are not capable to maintain their inner body temperature and because of that they are not active during the cold periods. They go out on the sun to increase their temperature and become active. In other case, a high temperature destroys the tridimensional structure of the proteins, therefore locking out the organism activity. Organisms which are used to extremely high temperatures need more rigid proteins. Temperature affects the attitude of the cage membrane which is made of lipids and proteins in liquid or crystal condition. On low temperatures, the structure of the membrane becomes rigid and fragile. On high temperatures it becomes liquid and disintegrated. In order to adapt on different temperatures, organisms change the structure of the lipids in their membranes therefore changing the point of melting. This is a case with the stored lipids. Having in mind all this, fish in cold waters are useful source of oil, while mammals have more fat. The effect of the membrane temperature is considered as crucial factor that denotes the temperature limit for each organism. The effect of the temperature on the physical condition of water is essential for denoting the accessibility of the water in each of the organisms. At the poiklothermal organisms, the water can freeze in low temperatures. Some species can survive the total freezing through creating crystals. To survive on low temperatures, cages must be able to survive in desiccation by creating compatible solvents. High temperatures increase the level of evaporation. In places where water supply is limited the ability for organism to survive high temperatures is not momentousness. Mammals and birds are homoeothermic organisms which mean that they can regulate their body temperature, controlling the effects of the outer temperature variations. Still, it is not considered as restriction, because the cooling can be maintained by sweating (loosing water). The heat is produced through food metabolism, meaning that, to survive a cold climate, they need a high level of metabolism.